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Air conditioning

Air conditioning: What are the air conditioners?

Probably everyone knows what air conditioning is. Rather, he thinks he knows. Because there are a great many different types of air conditioners today. And each has its own specifics, scope, etc. Figuring out which air conditioning is right for you is not easy. 

Let’s try to do it together.

Monoblock

Window air conditioner

  • Installed in a window opening
  • Low price
  • Low power
  • High noise level

A window air conditioning is a monoblock that is cut into a window opening or into a thin wall. Its big drawback is increased noise since the air conditioner compressor is located inside the room.

The main advantages of a window air conditioning are ease of installation and low price.

Air conditioning: What are the air conditioners? - Air conditioning

Mobile air conditioning

  • Floor-mounted
  • Ease of movement
  • Low power
  • High noise level
  • High price

Mobile air conditioning is installed on the floor and has small wheels, which makes it easy to move them from room to room. To install a mobile air conditioner is enough to bring a flexible air duct with a length of 0.5-1.5 meters to the street through a window or a hole in the wall. Hot air is removed through this duct. 

Split system

  • Consists of two blocks – indoor and outdoor
  • A wide variety of indoor units in terms of installation methods, power level, design
  • Low noise level of the indoor unit
  • Requires professional installation

The split system consists of two units, one of which is installed indoors, and the other, the noisiest, is taken out. Split systems are divided by the type of indoor device into the wall, cassette, duct, column, floor, and ceiling. Often, the same indoor unit can be installed both on the floor and in the ceiling position. The outer blocks of all split systems look the same.

Wall split system

  • Modern, varied design
  • Low price
  • Low power

For apartments, wall-type split systems are most often purchased. They are comfortable, compact, and fit well into almost any interior. Their power (2-7 kW) is just enough for air conditioning a medium-sized room, in contrast to other more powerful systems designed for air conditioning of larger rooms. And wall-mounted air conditioners are cheaper than other split systems.

Air conditioning: What are the air conditioners? - Air conditioning

Channel split system

  • Installed behind a false ceiling
  • Can cool several rooms at once using a duct system
  • There is a possibility of supplying fresh air from the street

The split system of duct type can cool several rooms at once. Typically, the capacity of these air conditioners is 12-25 kW, which is enough to cool a small office or 4-5-room apartment. Duct the air conditioners are installed behind a suspended or false ceiling that completely hides the indoor unit. The distribution of cooled air is carried out through a system of air ducts, which are also located in the space between the ceiling. 

Cassette split system

  • Installed behind a false ceiling
  • Closed with a decorative grille, the size of a standard ceiling tile
  • Distributes air evenly in four directions

Cassette air conditioning has approximately the same power range as ducted air conditioning, and a suspended ceiling is also required for their installation. However, unlike the duct air conditioner, the cassette distributes cooled air through the bottom of the unit. The lower part of such an air conditioner has the size of a standard ceiling tile – 600 x 600 mm, and at high power – twice as much – 1200 x 600 mm and is closed by a decorative grill with distribution blinds. 

A great advantage of the cassette air conditioner is its invisibility since only the decorative grille is visible. Due to the presence of air distribution dampers, air flows move in two, three, or four directions at once, and smooth and fast convection (air mixing) is also provided. Therefore, cassette units are ideal for areas where many people gather.

Floor-ceiling split system

  • Installed at the bottom of the wall or on the ceiling
  • Distributes air evenly without direct cold air flow to people

Most split systems of floor-ceiling type have a power of 7.5-15 kW. They are usually used in large rooms where it is not possible to use wall-mounted systems and there is no suspended ceiling, for example, in shops with a large glazing area. Some companies also produce floor-ceiling low-power units (from 2 to 3.5 kW), they will successfully fit into the interior of a small room. These air conditioners are notable for their shallow depth – 18-25 centimeters. They are installed at the bottom of the wall or on the ceiling. 

Column split system

  • Floor-mounted
  • Requires a large area of ​​placement
  • Creates a strong flow of cooled air

Column-type split systems are used in large-volume rooms in which it is impossible to place blocks on walls or ceilings, for example, in theaters, museums, hotel halls, historical buildings. The power of these air conditioni is 7-18 kW. Column air conditioners are heavy and resemble a refrigerator in size. They are installed on the floor and require a relatively large area for their placement since they create a strong flow of cooled air, which does not allow being in the immediate vicinity of the air conditioner.

Multi-split system

  • Connection of several indoor units of various types to one outdoor

This is the name of a system in which several indoor units are connected to one outdoor unit. Typically, such air conditioners have from two to five indoor units of wall type with a capacity of 2-5 kW, however, there are multi-systems with indoor units of duct, cassette, floor, ceiling type, or combining units of various types. The cost of a multi-split system is rarely lower than a combination of mono split systems similar in capacity and number of indoor units. 

Multi-zone system

  • The ability to service a large number of premises
  • Maintaining the desired temperature in each serviced room
  • High level of energy saving
  • Long service life
  • High price

Multi-zone systems are an improved type of split systems. One such system can serve from 4 to 32 rooms, for each of which you can choose the most suitable indoor unit – wall, cassette, duct, or floor-ceiling. Outdoor and indoor units can be spaced up to 100 meters. The refrigerant in a multi-zone system passes through one common circuit, and each indoor unit takes as much cold (or heat) as it needs to maintain the desired temperature. 

Central air conditioning systems

Air conditioning: What are the air conditioners? - Air conditioning
  • Serves large rooms or entire buildings
  • The main equipment is concentrated in the utility room
  • Distribution of processed air through the duct system
  • Low price per 1 sq. meter
  • Complexity of installation

Central air conditioning systems serve one large room, several zones of such a room, or many separate rooms. Their equipment, which requires systematic maintenance and repair, is concentrated in one place, outside the serviced premises (as a rule, in a utility room, on a technical floor, etc.). Due to this, when installing silencers and proper sound insulation of air ducts, the central air conditioning systems achieve the lowest noise level. 

When installed in large rooms, the price of central systems per 1 sq. square meter turns out to be lower than when installing a large number of household air conditioners. But the installation of a central air conditioning system requires complex assembly and construction work, which is not always possible when renovating existing buildings.

To cool large buildings, Roof-top is often used – a rooftop monoblock in size from a large TV to a car. Cooled (or heated) air through the duct system diverges from it through the rooms.

Precision air conditioner

  • autonomous cabinet-type air conditioner
  • temperature maintenance accuracy: ± 1 ° С
  • humidity maintenance accuracy: + 5% rel. ow.
  • operation at outdoor temperature: from + 50 ° С to -60 ° С
  • is used to ensure trouble-free and trouble-free operation of complex technological equipment

“Precision” from the English word “precision” – exact. A precision air conditioner is an autonomous cabinet-type air conditioner for precise maintenance of air parameters in terms of temperature, relative humidity, air mobility in the served room.

The use of precision systems at technological facilities is due to the need to compensate for the large amount of heat generated from technological equipment, which, in turn, is very sensitive to even minimal changes in temperature and relative humidity. Accordingly, the more the room temperature deviates from the optimum, the shorter the service life of the equipment. Precision systems allow maintaining the required temperature and humidity parameters of the indoor air.